Ability to speak English. For people who speak a language other than English at home, the
response represents the person’s own perception of his or her ability to speak English, from ‘‘very
well’’ to ‘‘not at all.’’ Because census questionnaires are usually completed by one household member,
the responses may represent the perception of another household member. (For more information,
see ‘‘Language spoken at home.’’)
Age. The age classification is based on the age of the person in complete years as of April 1,
2000. The age of the person usually was derived from their date of birth information. Their
reported age was used only when date of birth information was unavailable.
Ancestry. Ancestry refers to a person’s ethnic origin or descent, ‘‘roots,’’ heritage, or the place
of birth of the person
or the person’s parents or ancestors before their arrival in the
The data on ancestry represent self-classification by people according to the ancestry group(s)
with which they most closely identify. The ancestry question allowed respondents to report one or
more ancestry groups; however, only the first two responses were coded. The data presented in
this product refer to the total number of ancestries reported (up to two) by people living in the
Armed Forces. People on active duty with the United States Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine
Corps, or Coast Guard. It does not include Armed Forces members stationed abroad in foreign
Average family size. A measure obtained by dividing the number of people in families by the
total number of families (or family householders).
Average household size. A measure obtained by dividing the number of people in households
by the total number of households (or householders).
Average household size of owner-occupied units. A measure obtained by dividing the
number of people living in owner-occupied housing units by the total number of owner-occupied
Average household size of renter-occupied units. A measure obtained by dividing the
number of people living in renter-occupied housing units by the total number of renter-occupied
Born at sea. In a small number of cases, place of birth was reported as ‘‘At sea,’’ which does
not fit into any particular world region. Therefore, the foreign-born universe shown in the ‘‘Region
of birth of foreign born’’ section does not match the universe shown for the ‘‘Nativity and place of
birth’’ section. (For more information, see ‘‘Foreign born’’ and ‘‘Native.’’)
Child. A child includes a son or daughter by birth, a stepchild, or an adopted child of the
householder, regardless of the child’s age or marital status.
Class of worker. The class of worker refers to the same job as the respondent’s industry and
occupation, categorizing people according to the type of ownership of the employing organization.
Class of worker categories are private wage and salary workers, government workers, selfemployed
in own incorporated business workers, self-employed in own not incorporated business
workers, and unpaid family workers. Private wage and salary workers includes private-for-profit
and private not-for-profit employees. Government workers includes local, state, and federal government
employees. Self-employed in own incorporated business is included with private wage
and salary workers because they are paid employees of their own companies; whereas, selfemployed
in own not incorporated business includes people who work in their own unincorporated
business, profession, or trade, or who operated a farm. Unpaid family workers includes
people who work 15 hours or more without pay in a business or on a farm operated by a relative.
through naturalization. All
as either a ‘‘Naturalized citizen’’ or ‘‘Not a citizen.’’ (For more information, see ‘‘Native’’ and
Commuting to work. Means of transportation to work refers to the principal mode of travel or
type of conveyance that the worker usually used to get from home to work during the reference
week. The category ‘‘Car, truck, or van — drove alone’’ includes people who usually drove alone to
work, as well as people who were driven to work by someone who then drove back home or to a
nonwork destination during the reference week. The category ‘‘Car, truck, or van — carpooled’’
includes workers who reported that two or more people usually rode to work in the vehicle during
the reference week. The category ‘‘Public transportation (including taxicab)’’ includes workers who
usually used a bus or
trolley bus, streetcar or trolley car (publico in
elevated, railroad, ferryboat, or taxicab during the reference week. The category ‘‘Other means’’
includes workers who used a mode of travel that is not identified separately.
Disability status. People 5 years old and over are considered to have a disability if they have
one or more of the following: (a) blindness, deafness, or a severe vision or hearing impairment;
(b) a substantial limitation in the ability to perform basic physical activities, such as walking,
climbing stairs, reaching, lifting, or carrying; (c) difficulty learning, remembering, or concentrating;
or (d) difficulty dressing, bathing, or getting around inside the home. In addition to the above
criteria, people 16 years old and over are considered to have a disability if they have difficulty
going outside the home alone to shop or visit a doctor’s office, and people 16-64 years old are
considered to have a disability if they have difficulty working at a job or business.
Earnings. Earnings is defined as the sum of wage and salary income and net income from
selfemployment. Earnings represent the amount of income received regularly before deductions
for personal income taxes, social security, bond purchases, union dues, medicare deductions, etc.
Educational attainment. Educational attainment is the highest degree or level of school completed.
The category ‘‘Associate degree’’ includes people whose highest degree is an associate
degree, which generally requires two years of college level work and is either in an occupational
program that prepares them for a specific occupation, or an academic program primarily in the
arts and sciences. The course work may or may not be transferrable to a bachelor’s degree. Master’s
degrees include the traditional MA and MS degrees and field-specific degrees, such as MSW,
MEd, MBA, MLS, and MEng. Some examples of professional degrees include medicine, dentistry,
chiropractic, optometry, osteopathic medicine, pharmacy, podiatry, veterinary medicine, law, and
theology. Vocational and technical training, such as that in barber school; business, trade, technical,
and vocational schools; or other training for a specific trade are specifically excluded.
Employed. All civilians 16 years old and over who are either (1) ‘‘at work’’ - those who did any
work at all during the reference week as paid employees, worked in their own business or profession,
worked on their own farm, or worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers on a family farm
or in a family business or (2) are ‘‘with a job, but not at work’’ - those who did not work during the
reference week, but had jobs or businesses from which they were temporarily absent. Excluded
from the employed are people whose only activity consisted of work around their own house
(painting, repairing, or own home housework) or unpaid volunteer work for religious, charitable,
and similar organizations. Also excluded are people on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. The
reference week is the full calendar week preceding the date on which the respondent completed
the questionnaire or was interviewed by enumerators. (For more information, see ‘‘Labor force’’
Family household (family). A family includes a householder and one or more people living in
the same household who are related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption. All
people in a household who are related to the householder are regarded as members of his or her
family. A family household may contain people not related to the householder, but those people
are not included as part of the householder’s family in census tabulations. Thus, the number of
family households is equal to the number of families, but family households may include more
members than do families. A household can contain only one family for purposes of census tabulations.
Not all households contain families since a household may comprise a group of unrelated
people or one person living alone.
Female householder, no husband present. A female maintaining a household with no husband
of the householder present.
born. The foreign-born
population includes all people who are not
birth. (For more information, see ‘‘Native’’ and ‘‘Born at sea.’’)
Full-time, year-round workers. This category consists of people 16 years old and over who
usually worked 35 hours or more per week for 50 to 52 weeks in 1999.
Grandparents as caregivers. Data were collected on whether a grandchild lives in the household,
whether the grandparent has responsibility for the basic needs of the grandchild, and the
duration of that responsibility. The data on grandparents as caregivers were derived from answers
to questions asked of the population 15 years and over. Because of the very few numbers of
people under 30 years being grandparents, data are only shown for people 30 years and over.
Gross rent. Gross rent is monthly contract rent plus the estimated average monthly cost of
utilities and fuels, if these are paid by the renter. (For more information, see ‘‘Specified renteroccupied
Gross rent as a percentage of household income in 1999. A computed ratio of monthly
gross rent to monthly household income (total household income in 1999 divided by 12). Units
for which no cash rent is paid and units occupied by households that reported no income or a net
loss in 1999 comprise the category ‘‘Not computed.’’ (For more information, see ‘‘Specified renteroccupied
Group quarters population. The group quarters population includes all people not living in
households. Two general categories of people in group quarters are recognized: (1) the institutionalized
population, which includes people under formally authorized, supervised care or custody in
institutions at the time of enumeration (such as correctional institutions, nursing homes, and juvenile
institutions), and (2) the noninstitutionalized population, which includes all people who live in
group quarters other than institutions (such as college dormitories, military quarters, and group
Hispanic or Latino. People who identify with the terms ‘‘Hispanic’’ or ‘‘Latino’’ are those who
classify themselves in one of the specific Hispanic or Latino categories listed on the
questionnaire—‘‘Mexican,’’ ‘‘Puerto Rican,’’ or ‘‘Cuban’’—as well as those who indicate that they are
‘‘other Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino.’’ Origin can be viewed as the heritage, nationality group, lineage,
or country of birth of the person or the person’s parents or ancestors before their arrival in
Homeowner vacancy rate. The homeowner vacancy rate is the proportion of the homeowner
housing inventory that is vacant for sale. It is computed by dividing the number of vacant units
for sale only by the sum of owner-occupied units and vacant units that are for sale only, and then
multiplying by 100. (For more information, see ‘‘Vacant housing unit.’’)
House heating fuel. The type of fuel used most often to heat the house, apartment, or mobile
Household. A household includes all of the people who occupy a housing unit. People not living
in households are classified as living in group quarters.
Householder. In most cases, the householder is the person, or one of the people, in whose
name the home is owned, being bought, or rented and who is listed as Person 1 on the census
questionnaire. If there is no such person in the household, any adult household member 15 years
old and over could be designated as the householder (i.e., Person 1).
Housing unit. A housing unit may be a house, an apartment, a mobile home, a group of
rooms, or a single room that is occupied (or if vacant, is intended for occupancy) as separate living
quarters. Separate living quarters are those in which the occupants live separately from any
other individuals in the building and which have direct access from outside the building or
through a common hall.
Income in 1999. Information on money income received in calendar year 1999 was requested
from individuals 15 years and over. ‘‘Total income’’ is the sum of the amounts reported separately
for wage or salary income; net self-employment income; interest, dividends, or net rental or royalty
income; social security or railroad retirement income; supplemental security income (SSI);
public assistance or welfare payments; retirement or disability income; and all other income.
Receipts from the following sources are not included as income: money received from the sale of
property (unless the recipient was engaged in the business of selling such property); capital gains;
the value of income ‘‘in kind’’ from food stamps, public housing subsidies, medical care, employer
contributions for individuals, etc.; withdrawal of bank deposits; money borrowed; tax refunds;
exchange of money between relatives living in the same household; and gifts and lump-sum
inheritances, insurance payments, and other types of lump-sum receipts.
Although the income statistics cover calendar year 1999, the characteristics of individuals and the
composition of households/families refer to the time of enumeration. Thus, the income of the
household or family does not include amounts received by individuals who were members of the
household/family during all or part of the calendar year 1999 if these individuals no longer
resided with the household/family at the time of enumeration. Similarly, income amounts reported
by individuals who did not reside with the household/family during 1999 but who were members
of the household/family at the time of enumeration are included. However, the composition of
most households/families was the same during 1999 as at the time of enumeration.
Income of families. In compiling statistics on family income, the incomes of all members 15
years old and over in each family are summed and treated as a single amount.
Income of households. Includes the income of the householder and all other individuals
15 years old and over in the household, whether they are related to the householder or not.
Because many households consist of only one person, average household income is usually less
than average family income.
Income type in 1999
Wage or salary income. Wage or salary income includes total money earnings received for
work performed as an employee during calendar year 1999. It includes wages, salary, Armed
Forces pay, commissions, tips, piece-rate payments, and cash bonuses earned before deductions
were made for taxes, bonds, pensions, union dues, etc.
Self-employment income. Self-employment income includes both farm and nonfarm selfemployment
Nonfarm self-employment income. Nonfarm self-employment includes net money income
(gross receipts minus expenses) from one’s own business, professional enterprise, or partnership.
Gross receipts include the value of all goods sold and services rendered. Expenses
include costs of goods purchased, rent, heat, light, power, depreciation, charges, wages and
salaries paid, business taxes (not personal income taxes), etc.
Farm self-employment. Farm self-employment includes net money income (gross receipts
minus operating expenses) from the operation of a farm by a person on his or her own
account, as an owner, renter, or sharecropper. Gross receipts include the value of all products
sold; government farm programs; money received from the rental of farm equipment to others;
and incidental receipts from the sale of wood, sand, gravel, etc. Operating expenses
include cost of feed, fertilizer, seed, and other farming supplies; cash wages paid to farmhands;
depreciation charges; cash rent; interest on farm mortgages; farm building repairs;
farm taxes (not state and federal personal income taxes), etc. The value of fuel, food, or other
farm products used for family living is not included as part of net income.
Interest, dividends, or net rental income. Interest, dividends, or net rental income
includes interests on savings or bonds, dividends from stockholdings or membership in associations,
net income from rental of property to others and receipts from boarders or lodgers, net
royalties, and periodic payments from an estate or trust fund.
Social security income. Social security income includes social security pensions and survivors
benefits and permanent disability insurance payments made by the Social Security Administration
prior to deductions for medical insurance, and railroad retirement insurance checks
income (SSI). Supplemental security
income is a
program administered by the Social Security Administration that guarantees a minimum
level of income for needy aged, blind, or disabled individuals. The census questionnaire for
SSI was most likely interpreted by respondents as other, incidental income.
Public assistance income. Public assistance income includes general assistance and temporary
assistance to needy families (TANF). Separate payments received for hospital or other medical
care (vendor payments) are excluded. This does not include supplemental security income
Retirement or disability income. Retirement or disability income includes: (1) retirement
pensions and survivor benefits from a former employer; labor union; or federal, state, or local
government; and the
from companies or unions;
federal, state, or local government; and the
receipts from annuities and insurance; and (4) regular income from IRA and KEOGH plans. This
does not include social security income.
All other income. All other income includes unemployment compensation, Veterans’ Administration
(VA) payments, alimony and child support, contributions received periodically from
people not living in the household, military family allotments, and other kinds of periodic
income other than earnings.
Industry. Information on industry relates to the kind of business conducted by a person’s
employing organization. For employed people, the data refer to the person’s job during the reference
week. For those who worked at two or more jobs, the data refer to the job at which the person
worked the greatest number of hours. Some examples of industrial groups shown in this
product include agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and mining; construction; manufacturing;
wholesale trade; retail trade; and public administration.
Institutionalized population. The institutionalized population includes people under formally
authorized, supervised care or custody in institutions at the time of enumeration. (For more information,
see ‘‘Group quarters population.’’)
Kitchen facilities. Complete kitchen facilities include all of the following: a sink with piped
water, a range or cook top and oven, and a refrigerator. All kitchen facilities must be located in the
house, apartment, or mobile home, but they need not be in the same room.
Labor force. The labor force includes all people classified in the civilian labor force (that is,
‘‘employed’’ and ‘‘unemployed’’ people) plus members of the U.S. Armed Forces (people on active
duty in the U.S. Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard). (For more information, see
‘‘Employed’’ and ‘‘Unemployed.’’)
Language spoken at home. The population who speaks a language other than English
includes only those who sometimes or always speak a language other than English at home. It
does not include those who speak a language other than English only at school or work, or those
who were limited to only a few expressions or slang of the other language. Most people who
speak another language at home also speak English. (For more information, see ‘‘Ability to speak
Marital status. Each person is asked whether they are ‘‘now married,’’ ‘‘widowed,’’ ‘‘divorced,’’
‘‘separated,’’ or ‘‘never married.’’ Couples who live together (for example, people in common-law
marriages) were able to report the marital status they considered the most appropriate.
Married-couple family. A family in which the householder and his or her spouse are enumerated
as members of the same household.
Mean earnings. See ‘‘Mean Income.’’ For more information, see “Conditional rounding” under
Mean income. Mean income is the amount obtained by dividing the total income of a particular
statistical universe by the number of units in that universe. Thus, mean household income is
obtained by dividing total household income by the total number of households. For the various
types of income, the means are based on households having those types of income.
Care should be exercised in using and interpreting mean income values for small subgroups of
the population. Because the mean is influenced strongly by extreme values in the distribution, it is
especially susceptible to the effects of sampling variability, misreporting, and processing errors.
The median, which is not affected by extreme values, is, therefore, a better measure than the
mean when the population base is small.
Mean public assistance income. See ‘‘Mean income.’’ For more information, see “Conditional
Rounding” under “Derived measures.”
Mean retirement income. See ‘‘Mean income.’’ For more information, see “Conditional rounding”
under “Derived measures.”
Mean social security income. See ‘‘Mean income.’’ For more information, see “Conditional
Rounding” under “Derived measures.”
Mean supplemental security income. See ‘‘Mean income.’’ For more information, see “Conditional
rounding” under “Derived measures.”
Mean travel time to work (minutes). Mean travel time to work is the average travel time in
minutes that workers usually took to get from home to work (one-way) during the reference week.
This measure is obtained by dividing the total number of minutes taken to get from home to work
by the number of workers 16 years old and over who did not work at home. The travel time
includes time spent waiting for public transportation, picking up passengers in carpools, and time
spent in other activities related to getting to work. For more information, see “Conditional rounding”
under “Derived measures.”
Means of transportation to work. See ‘‘Commuting to work.’’
Median age. The median divides the age distribution into two equal parts: one-half of the
cases falling below the median age and one-half above the median.
Median earnings for full-time, year-round workers. The median divides the earnings distribution
into two equal parts: one-half of the cases falling below the median and one-half above
the median. Median earnings for full-time, year-round workers is based on individuals 16 years
and over with earnings who usually worked 35 hours or more per week for 50 to 52 weeks in
1999. This measure is rounded to the nearest dollar. (For more information, see ‘‘Earnings.’’)
Median gross rent. The median divides the gross rent distribution (rent, plus utilities, if paid
separately from rent) into two equal parts: one-half of the cases falling below the median gross
rent and one-half above the median. This measure is rounded to the nearest whole dollar. Housing
units that are renter occupied without payment of cash rent are excluded in the calculation of
median gross rent.
Median income. The median divides the income distribution into two equal parts: one-half of
the cases falling below the median income and one-half above the median. For households and
families, the median income is based on the distribution of the total number of households or
families including those with no income. The median for individuals is based on individuals
15 years and over with income. This measure is rounded to the nearest whole dollar.
Median rooms. The median divides the room distribution into two equal parts: one-half of the
cases falling below the median number of rooms and one-half above the median. In computing
median rooms, the whole number is used as the midpoint of the interval; thus, the category
‘‘3 rooms’’ is treated as an interval ranging from 2.5 to 3.5 rooms. This measure is rounded to the
Median selected monthly owner costs. The median divides the selected monthly owner
costs into two equal parts: one-half of the cases falling below the median selected monthly owner
costs and one-half above the median. Medians are shown separately for units ‘‘with a mortgage’’
and for units ‘‘not mortgaged.’’ This measure is rounded to the nearest whole dollar.
Median value. The median divides the value distribution into two equal parts: one-half of the
cases falling below the median value of the property (house and lot, mobile home and lot, or condominium
unit) and one-half above the median. This measure is rounded to the nearest hundred
dollars. (For more information, see ‘‘Specified owner-occupied units.’’)
Mortgage status. ‘‘Mortgage’’ refers to all forms of debt where the property is pledged as
security for repayment of the debt, including deeds of trust, trust deed, contracts to purchase,
land contracts, junior mortgages, and home equity loans.
Native. The native population
includes people born in the
Island Areas. People who were born in a foreign country but have at least one American parent
also are included in this category. (For more information, see ‘‘Born at sea’’ and ‘‘Foreign born.’’)
No telephone service. See ‘‘Telephone.’’
Nonfamily household. A household consisting of a householder living alone or with nonrelatives
Noninstitutionalized population. All people who live in group quarters other than institutions.
Also, included are staff residing at institutional group quarters. (For more information, see
‘‘Group quarters population.’’)
Nonrelative. Any household member who is not related to the householder by birth, marriage,
or adoption, including foster children.
Occupants per room. Occupants per room is obtained by dividing the number of people in
each occupied housing unit by the number of rooms in the unit. Occupants per room is rounded
to the nearest hundredth. Although the Census Bureau has no official definition of crowded units,
many users consider units with more than one occupant per room to be crowded.
Occupation. Occupation describes the kind of work the person does on the job. For employed
people, the data refer to the person’s job during the reference week. For those who worked at two
or more jobs, the data refer to the job at which the person worked the greatest number of hours
during the reference week. Some examples of occupational groups shown in this product include
service, sales, and farming.
Occupied housing unit. A housing unit is classified as occupied if it is the usual place of residence
of the person or group of people living in it at the time of enumeration, or if the occupants
are only temporarily absent; that is, away on vacation or business.
Other relative. Any household member related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption,
but not included specifically in another relationship category.
Own child. A never-married child under 18 years old who is a son or daughter of the householder
by birth, marriage (a stepchild), or adoption. For 100-percent tabulations, own children
consist of all sons/daughters of householders who are under 18 years of age. For sample data,
own children consist of sons/daughters of householders who are under 18 years of age and who
have never been married; therefore, numbers of own children of householders may be different in
these two tabulations (note: in tabulations of own children by employment status of parents, the
number of ‘‘own children’’ includes children in families and subfamilies and may therefore differ
from other 100-percent and sample tabulations).
Owner-occupied housing unit. A housing unit is owner occupied if the owner or co-owner
lives in the unit even if it is mortgaged or not fully paid for.
Per capita income. Per capita income is the mean income computed for every man, woman,
and child in a particular group. It is derived by dividing the total income of a particular group by
the total population in that group. For more information, see “Conditional rounding” under
Place of birth. See ‘‘Born at sea,’’ ‘‘Foreign born,’’ and ‘‘Native.’’
Plumbing facilities. The data on plumbing facilities are obtained from both occupied and
vacant housing units. Complete plumbing facilities include: (1) hot and cold piped water, (2) a
flush toilet, and (3) a bathtub or shower. All three facilities must be located in the housing unit.
Poverty status in 1999. Poverty is measured by using 48 thresholds that vary by family size
and number of children within the family and age of the householder. To determine whether a person
is poor, one compares the total income of that person’s family with the threshold appropriate
for that family. If the total family income is less than the threshold, then the person is considered
poor, together with every member of his or her family.
Not every person is included in the poverty universe: institutionalized people, people in military group
quarters, people living in college dormitories, and unrelated individuals under 15 years old are considered
neither as ‘‘poor’’ nor as ‘‘nonpoor,’’ and are excluded from both the numerator and the denominator when
calculating poverty rates. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) mandates that all federal agencies
(including the Census Bureau) use this poverty definition for statistical purposes (OMB Statistical Policy
Directive 14, May 1978).
Race. The concept of race as used by the Census Bureau reflects self-identification by people
according to the race or races with which they most closely identify. The categories are sociopolitical
constructs and should not be interpreted as being scientific or anthropological in nature.
Furthermore, the race categories include both racial and national-origin groups.
classifications used by the Census Bureau adhere to the
Notice entitled, ‘‘Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and
Ethnicity’’ issued by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). These standards govern the categories
used to collect and present federal data on race and ethnicity. The OMB requires five minimum
categories (White, Black or African American, American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian, and
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander) for race. The race categories are described below with
a sixth category, ‘‘Some other race,’’ added with OMB approval. In addition to the five race groups,
the OMB also states that respondents should be offered the option of selecting one or more races.
If an individual could not provide a race response, the race or races of the householder or other
household members were assigned by the computer using specific rules of precedence of household
relationship. For example, if race was missing for a natural-born child in the household, then
either the race or races of the householder, another natural-born child, or the spouse of the householder
were assigned. If race was not reported for anyone in the household, the race or races of a
householder in a previously processed household were assigned.
White. A person having
origins in any of the original peoples of
German, Italian, Lebanese, Near Easterner, Arab, or Polish.
Black or African American. A person having origins in any of the Black racial groups of
written entries such as African American, Afro American, Kenyan, Nigerian, or Haitian.
American Indian and
of North and
community attachment. It includes people who classify themselves as described below.
American Indian. Includes people who indicate their race as ‘‘American Indian,’’ entered the
name of an Indian tribe, or report such entries as Canadian Indian, French-American Indian, or
entries such as Arctic
Slope, Inupiat, Yupik, Alutiiq, Egegik, and Pribilovian. The
are the Alaskan Athabascan, Tlingit, and Haida. The information for Census 2000 is derived
from the American Indian Detailed Tribal Classification List for the 1990 census and was
expanded to list the individual Alaska Native Villages when provided as a written response for
Asian. A person having
origins in any of the original peoples of the
or the Indian
subcontinent including, for example,
‘‘Filipino,’’ ‘‘Korean,’’ ‘‘Japanese,’’ ‘‘Vietnamese,’’ and ‘‘Other Asian.’’
Asian Indian. Includes people who indicate their race as ‘‘Asian Indian’’ or identify themselves
as Bengalese, Bharat, Dravidian, East Indian, or Goanese.
Chinese. Includes people who indicate their race as ‘‘Chinese’’ or who identify themselves as
Cantonese or Chinese American. In some census tabulations, written entries of Taiwanese are
included with Chinese while in others they are shown separately.
Filipino. Includes people who indicate their race as ‘‘Filipino’’ or who report entries such as
Philipino, Philipine, or Filipino American.
Japanese. Includes people who indicate their race as ‘‘Japanese’’ or who report entries such
as Nipponese or Japanese American.
Korean. Includes people who indicate their race as ‘‘Korean’’ or who provide a response of
Vietnamese. Includes people who indicate their race as ‘‘Vietnamese’’ or who provide a
response of Vietnamese American.
Other Asian. Includes people who provide a response of Bangladeshi, Burmese, Cambodian,
Indonesian, Laotian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, or
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. A person having origins in any of the original
race as ‘‘Native Hawaiian,’’ ‘‘Guamanian or Chamorro,’’ ‘‘Samoan,’’ and ‘‘Other Pacific Islander.’’
Native Hawaiian. Includes people who indicate their race as ‘‘Native Hawaiian’’ or who identify
themselves as ‘‘Part Hawaiian’’ or ‘‘Hawaiian.’’
Guamanian or Chamorro. Includes people who indicate their race as such, including written
entries of Chamorro or
Samoan. Includes people who indicate their race as ‘‘Samoan’’ or who identified themselves
as American Samoan or Western Samoan.
Other Pacific Islander. Includes people who provided a write-in response of a Pacific Islander
group such as Tahitian, Northern Mariana Islander, Palauan, Fijian, or a cultural group, such as
Melanesian, Micronesian, or Polynesian.
Some other race. Includes all other responses not included in the ‘‘White,’’ ‘‘Black or African
‘‘American Indian and
Pacific Islander’’ race categories described above. Respondents providing write-in entries such
as multiracial, mixed, interracial, or a Hispanic/Latino group (for example, Mexican, Puerto
Rican, or Cuban) in the ‘‘Some other race’’ category are included in this category.
Two or more races. People may have chosen to provide two or more races either by checking
two or more race response check boxes, by providing multiple write-in responses, or by
some combination of check boxes and write-in responses. The race response categories shown
on the questionnaire are collapsed into the five minimum race groups identified by the OMB,
plus the Census Bureau ‘‘Some other race’’ category. For data product purposes, ‘‘Two or more
races’’ refers to combinations of two or more of the following race categories:
- Black or African American
- American Indian and
- Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
- Some other race
Coding of write-in entries. During 100-percent processing of Census 2000 questionnaires,
written entries were coded from four response categories on the race item—American Indian or
Alaska Native, Other Asian, Other Pacific Islander, and Some other race—for which an area for a
write-in response was provided. The Other Asian and Other Pacific Islander response categories
shared the same write-in area on the questionnaire.
Reference week. The data on employment status and commuting to work are related to a oneweek
time period, known as the reference week. For each person, this week is the full calendar
week, Sunday through Saturday, preceding the date the questionnaire was completed. This calendar
week is not the same for all people since the enumeration was not completed in one week.
Related children. Related children include all people under 18 years old related to the householder,
regardless of their marital status. Excluded are spouses of householders.
Rental vacancy rate. The proportion of the rental inventory that is vacant for rent. It is computed
by dividing the number of vacant units for rent by the sum of the renter-occupied units and
the number of vacant units for rent, and then multiplying by 100.
Renter-occupied housing unit. All occupied housing units that are not owner occupied,
whether they are rented for cash rent or occupied without payment of cash rent, are classified as
renter occupied. Housing units in ‘‘continuing care’’ or life care facilities are included in the ‘‘rented
for cash rent’’ category.
Residence in 1995. Residence in 1995 indicates an individual’s area of residence on April 1,
Resident parents of own children. Resident parents of own children are those parents
whose usual residence was the same as that of their own children.
Rooms. The data on rooms were obtained from both occupied and vacant housing units. The
intent of this question is to count the number of whole rooms used for living purposes.
For each unit, rooms include living rooms, dining rooms, kitchens, bedrooms, finished recreation
rooms, enclosed porches suitable for year-round use, and lodger’s rooms. Excluded are strip or
pullman kitchens, bathrooms, open porches, balconies, halls or foyers, half-rooms, utility rooms,
unfinished attics or basements, or other unfinished space used for storage. A partially divided
room is a separate room only if there is a partition from floor to ceiling, but not if the partition
consists solely of shelves or cabinets.
School enrollment. People are classified as enrolled in school if they reported attending a
‘‘regular’’ public or
private school or college at anytime between
enumeration. The question includes instructions to ‘‘include only nursery school, kindergarten,
elementary school, and schooling that would lead to a high school diploma or college degree’’ as
regular school. Tutoring or correspondence school counts if credit can be obtained in a ‘‘regular
school.’’ Schools supported and controlled primarily by a local, county, state or federal government
are defined as public. Those supported and controlled primarily by religious organizations
or other private groups are private.
People who are enrolled also report the level in which they are enrolled, from nursery school or
preschool through college undergraduate years and graduate and professional school. Vocational,
trade, and business schools are not included.
Seasonal, recreational, or occasional use housing unit. Seasonal, recreational, or occasional
use housing units include vacant units used or intended for use only in certain seasons, for
weekends, or other occasional use throughout the year. Interval ownership units, sometimes
called shared ownership or time-sharing condominiums are included in this category. (For more
information, see ‘‘Vacant housing unit.’’)
Selected monthly owner costs. Selected monthly owner costs are the sum of payments for
mortgages, deeds of trust, contracts to purchase, or similar debts on the property; real estate
taxes; fire, hazard, and flood insurance on the property; utilities; and fuels. It also includes, where
appropriate, the monthly condominium fees or mobile home costs.
Selected monthly owner costs as a percentage of household income in 1999. Selected
monthly owner costs as a percentage of household income is the computed ratio of selected
monthly owner costs to monthly household income in 1999. The ratio was computed separately
for each unit and rounded to the nearest whole percentage. Units occupied by households reporting
no income or a net loss in 1999 are included in the ‘‘Not computed’’ category.
Sex. The data on sex were derived from answers to a question that was asked of all people.
Individuals were asked to mark either ‘‘male’’ or ‘‘female’’ to indicate their sex. For most cases in
which sex was not reported, it was determined by the appropriate entry from the person’s given
(i.e., first) name and household relationship. Otherwise, sex was imputed according to the relationship
to the householder and the age of the person.
Specified owner-occupied units. Specified owner-occupied units are owner-occupied, onefamily,
attached and detached houses on less than 10 acres without a business or medical office
on the property.
Specified renter-occupied units. Specified renter-occupied units include all renter-occupied
units except 1-unit attached or detached houses on 10 acres or more.
Spouse. A person who is married to and living with the householder. This category includes
people in formal marriages, as well as people in common-law marriages.
5–18 About the Profile
Telephone. Households with telephone service have a telephone in working order and are able
to make and receive calls.
Tenure. All occupied housing units are classified as either owner occupied or renter occupied.
A housing unit is owner occupied if the owner or co-owner lives in the unit even if it is mortgaged
or not fully paid for. All occupied housing units that are not owner occupied, whether they are
rented for cash rent or occupied without payment of cash rent, are classified as renter occupied.
Unemployed. Civilians 16 years old and over are classified as unemployed if they (1) were neither
‘‘at work’’ nor ‘‘with a job but not at work’’ during the reference week, (2) were looking for
work during the last four weeks, and (3) were available to start a job. Also included as unemployed
are civilians 16 years old and over who did not work at all during the reference week, were
on temporary layoff from a job, expected to be recalled to work within the next 6 months, or had
been given a date to return to work, and were available for work during the reference week. (For
more information, see ‘‘Employed’’ and ‘‘Labor force.’’)
Units in structure. The data on units in structure (also referred to as ‘‘type of structure’’) were
obtained from both occupied and vacant housing units. A structure is a separate building that
either has open spaces on all sides or is separated from other structures by dividing walls that
extend from ground to roof. In determining the number of units in a structure, all housing units,
both occupied and vacant, are counted. Stores and office space are excluded. The statistics are
presented for the number of housing units in structures of specified type and size, not for the
number of residential buildings.
Unmarried partner. An unmarried partner is a person who is not related to the householder,
who shares living quarters with, and who has a close personal relationship with the householder.
Unrelated individuals. Unrelated individuals include: (1) a householder living alone or with
nonrelatives only, (2) a household member who is not related to the householder, or (3) a person
living in group quarters who is not an inmate of an institution.
Vacant housing unit. A housing unit is vacant if no one is living in it at the time of enumeration,
unless its occupants are only temporarily absent. Units temporarily occupied at the time of
enumeration entirely by people who have a usual residence elsewhere are also classified as
vacant. (For more information, see ‘‘Housing unit.’’)
Value. Value is the respondent’s estimate of how much the property (house and lot, mobile
home and lot, or condominium unit) would sell for if it were for sale.
Vehicles available. Vehicles available are the number of passenger cars, vans, and pick-up or
panel trucks of one-ton capacity or less kept at home and available for use by household members.
Veteran status. A ‘‘civilian veteran’’ is a person 18 years old or over who, at the time of enumeration,
had served on active duty in the U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, or the Coast
Guard in the past (even for a short time), but was not then on active duty, or who had served in
the Merchant Marine during World War II. People who had served in the National Guard or military
Reserves are classified as veterans only if they had ever been called or ordered to active duty, not
counting the four to six months for initial training or yearly summer camps.
Workers. Workers 16 years and over are members of the Armed Forces and civilians who were
at work during the reference week. (For more information, see ‘‘Reference week.’’)
Year householder moved into unit. Year householder moved into unit is the year of the latest
move by the householder. If the householder moved back into a housing unit he or she previously
occupied, the year of the latest move was reported. The intent is to establish the year the
present occupancy began.
entry. The year in which a
person born outside the
Year structure built. The data on year structure built are obtained from both occupied and
vacant housing units. Year structure built refers to when the building was first constructed, not
when it was remodeled, added to, or converted. The data relate to the number of units built during
the specified periods that were still in existence at the time of enumeration.
Average. See ‘‘Mean.’’
Interpolation. Interpolation frequently is used in calculating medians or quartiles based on
interval data and in approximating standard errors from tables. Linear interpolation is used to
estimate values of a function between two known values. ‘‘Pareto interpolation’’ is an alternative
to linear interpolation. In Pareto interpolation, the median is derived by interpolating between the
logarithms of the upper and lower income limits of the median category. It is used by the Census
Bureau in calculating median income within intervals wider than $2,500.
Mean. This measure represents an arithmetic average of a set of values. It is derived by dividing
the sum (or aggregate) of a group of numerical items by the total number of items in that
group. For example, mean household earnings is obtained by dividing the aggregate of all earnings
reported by individuals with earnings in households by the total number of households with
earnings. (Additional information on means is included in the separate explanations of many
population and housing subjects.)
Conditional rounding. When a mean is based on a population of less than 30, the mean
shown in the sample tables of the Demographic Profile may differ slightly from a mean
appearing in or calculated from data in Summary File 3. This is because conditional rounding
is used when there is a weighted estimate of less than 30 in the sample tables of the Demographic
Profile. In Summary File 3, conditional rounding is used for aggregates (numerators
for calculating means) when there are one or two unweighted cases.
Median. This measure represents the middle value (if n is odd) or the average of the two
middle values (if n is even) in an ordered list of n data values. The median divides the total frequency
distribution into two equal parts: one-half of the cases falling below the median and onehalf
above the median. The median is computed on the basis of the distribution as tabulated,
which is sometimes more detailed than the distribution shown in specific census publications and
other data products. (See also ‘‘Interpolation.’’)
Percentage. This measure is calculated by taking the number of items in a group possessing a
characteristic of interest and dividing by the total number of items in that group and then multiplying
Rate. This is a measure of occurrences in a given period of time divided by the possible number
of occurrences during that period. Rates are sometimes presented as percentages.
ANVSA Alaska Native village statistical area
CDP Census designated place
CMSA Consolidated metropolitan statistical area
MSA Metropolitan statistical area
OTSA Oklahoma tribal statistical area
PMSA Primary metropolitan statistical area
TDSA Tribal designated statistical area